The total area of China ’ s claims on other countries far exceeds its current size itself, but Beijing refuses to budge on its claims

Many of China's claims are based on unsubstantiated and uncorroborated “historical precedents” dating back centuries. China only has land borders with 14 countries, but it claims territory from at least 21 nations.

These include Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei, maritime territory which is 1000 kilometres from the closest Chinese soil (well outside the internationally recognised 200 kilometres EEZ).

The following is a list of China’s current claims against other countries, all of which it has made painfully clear it is willing to go to war over:


Afghan province of Bahdashan (despite treaty of 1963, China still encroaches on Afghan territory).


Bhutanese enclaves in Tibet, namely Cherkip Gompa, Dho, Dungmar, Gesur, Gezon, Itse Gompa, Khochar, Nyanri, Ringung, Sanmar, Tarchen and Zuthulphuk. Also Kula Kangri and mountainous areas to the west of this peak, plus the western Haa District of Bhutan


South China Sea especially Spratly Islands


China claims large areas of Burma on historical precedent (Yuan Dynasty, 1271-1368). There are unspecified border disputes with Burma.


China has, on occasion, claimed parts of Cambodia on historical precedent (Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644)


Aksai Chin (part of Jammu and Kashmir), Demchok, Chumar, Kaurik, Shipki Pass, Jadh, and Lapthal Shaksgam Valley, South Tibet (part of India-controlled Arunachal Pradesh), Trans-Karakoram Tract


Parts of the South China Sea.


Parts of the East China Sea, particularly the Senkaku Islands. Also, on occasion, the Ryukyu Islands, on the grounds that the completely independent Kingdom of Ryukyu was once a vassal state of China. The Kingdom of Ryukyu terminated tributary relations with China in 1874.


There are continual unilateral claims by China on Kazakhstan territory, despite new agreements, in China’s favour, signed every few years.


China claims the majority of Kyrgyzstan on the grounds that it was unfairly forced to cede the territory (which it had formerly conquered) to Russia in the 19th century.


China claims large areas of Laos on historical precedent (Yuan Dynasty, 1271-1368)


Parts of the South China Sea, particularly the Spratly Islands


China claims all of Mongolia on historical precedent (Yuan Dynasty, 1271-1368). In fact, Mongolia, under Genghis Khan, occupied China.


China claims parts of Nepal dating back to the Sino-Nepalese War in 1788-1792. China claims they are part of Tibet, therefore part of China.

North Korea

Baekdu Mountain and Jiandao. China has also on occasion claimed all of North Korea on historical grounds (Yuan Dynasty, 1271-1368).


Territory is still unilaterally claimed by China, despite China signing numerous agreements.


Parts of the South China Sea, particularly Scarborough Shoal and the Spratly Islands


160,000 square kilometres still unilaterally claimed by China, despite China signing numerous agreements.


Parts of the South China Sea.

South Korea

Parts of the East China Sea. China has also on occasion claimed all of South Korea on historical grounds (Yuan Dynasty, 1271-1368).


China claims all of Taiwan, but particular disputes are: Macclesfield Bank, Paracel Islands, Scarborough Shoal, Senkaku Islands, parts of the South China Sea and the Spratly Islands.


China claims parts of Tajikistan on historical precedent (Qing Dynasty, 1644-1912).


China claims large parts of Vietnam on historical precedent (Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644). Also: Macclesfield Bank, Paracel Islands, parts of the South China Sea and the Spratly Islands.

Additionally, China recently taunted Hillary Clinton about claiming territorial rights on Hawaii, and claimed that Chinese sailors had settled peacefully in Australia centuries before European discovery. And let’s not forget the supposed 1418 map that “proves” China discovered the America  (and the entire world) long before Columbus.




Historical Back Ground

The Donglang region popularly known as Tri Junction,  has remained a hot spot, under the control of China but keenly watched by New Delhi given its proximity to the narrow strip of territory that connects India’s northeast with the rest of the country. Doka La is the Indian name for the region which Bhutan recognizes as Dokalam, while China claims it as part of its Donglang region. China and Bhutan had about 24 rounds of boundary talk over this region without any tangible results. It is felt that China has deliberately left this area as unresolved to be used to pressurize India at an opportune moment.

Current Crisis

China and India have been engaged in a standoff in the Dokalam area near the Bhutan tri-junction, after a Chinese army's construction party came to build a road.

Last month China began building a road on the territory also claimed by Bhutan, a move seen as upsetting the status quo. India considers the road as serious "security concern" and that the area that China is claiming as its own is disputed by Bhutan as its territory.

Although China and Bhutan have spent decades negotiating the precise border without serious incident, this time Bhutan sought help from its long-time ally, India, which sent troops onto the plateau. India responded by ordering the Army to restrict Chinese activities in the disputed region, which has resulted into each side amassing troops resulting into a military stand off

Each side reportedly, has about 3,000 soldiers facing off across a remote plateau in the pocket of land where Tibet meets Sikkim and Bhutan.

Serious media war has erupted between the two countries accusing each other on various issues.

View Point – Options for India & China

  • It must be stressed by both sides that the stand-off can be best resolved through mature diplomacy and not through the use of force as is being threatened by Chinese media. Media of both countries should work towards a peaceful resolution of the crisis rather than fueling it unnecessarily.
  • Chinese pre-condition to India to withdraw troops should also address the recent construction activities, which must be stopped to maintain status quo.
  • The Doklam crisis should remain a localized issue and not allowed to spread to other areas of boundary disputes between India and China.
  • Kailash Mansarover Yatra must be started by China as first step towards diffusion of the situation, albeit through alternate route.
  • Border tension with China should not be allowed to come in way of trade and economic relations between the two countries.
  • China should be reassured by India that its growing relations with US & other Nations are not targeted against it. The Military exercises like Malabar are also not targeted against it.
  • India should use this opportunity to get some concrete results in settling other disputes in on going border talks with China, which is slated for this year some time later.


China Claims Doklam Plateau in Bhutan

 According to media reports, Doklam(or Donglang), a plateau is in western Bhutan, is the latest flash point between India and China. China, which was recently snubbed by India by its refusal to participate in Chinese sponsored OBOR Conference in a bid to take revenge has tried to pressurize India by publicizing the issue . Incidentally, Bhutan  is the second country of the region which did not participate in the much hyped OBOR Conclave.

  Pursuing its policy of teaching a lesson to its adversaries, who do not tow its line Beijing has raised a controversy by claiming that, China's People's Liberation Army soldiers were building a road but stopped by Indian Army soldiers. Interestingly, the Doklam area, where Beijing has accused Indian Army soldiers of trespassing is in Bhutan, but China has been staking a claim on it to gain a strategic edge over India.  The Doklam plateau is a subject of dispute between China and Bhutan. Beijing alleged that Indian Army soldiers recently crossed India's border with China in an attempt to block a road construction in Doklam area. The Ministry of Defence of Chinese Government claimed that the construction of the road by its personnel was entirely a sovereign act in the territory of China.


 The incidents of border tensions between India and China are on the increase in the recent past. China is rattled by India’s assertions that part of CPEC is in the disputed territory and hence not acceptable to India. The latest incident has been carefully chosen as to drag Bhutan also in the row. Bhutan has been a true all weather ally of India. By involving a third party in the border dispute, China wants to pressurize India and convey the message that she is not too happy over Indian stand on OBOR and also non participation of Bhutan in the OBOR Conclave.

  In a strange turn of the event, Chinese Media advised its Government to use all means necessary to teach Border Rules to India. This is an early indication that China is not going to take border incidents with India lightly, in future. 




V.K. Singh’s remarks seen as veiled message to China

 Speaking at the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) foreign ministers’ meet in Beijing, VK Singh said that “terrorists cannot be differentiated as good or bad”. India has been miffed with China for continuously opposing UN sanctions on Pakistan-based terrorist Masood Azhar.

“terrorism remains one of the most potent global menaces and threatens global peace”.

VK Singh stressed that terrorists cannot be differentiated as good or bad. They are terrorists, they are criminals and we need to have concerted actions both regionally and internationally to curb their activities. He informed that among BRICS, there is a strong consensus that all terrorism must be condemned. 



Joint Exercise in Xinjiang Mil Region with an eye Towards Counter Terrorist Operations.

Recently, an Army Aviation Brigade in Xinjiang Military Region, undertook joint training for pilots and ground tactical teams. The Brigade Commander Zhao bin, stated that the joint exercise is aimed to have better understanding and coordination between the pilots in the air  & the tactical teams on ground below . The young pilots who graduated last year, classified as "special warfare units", have been made responsible for ground assault and alert missions, along with the commandos, trained in fire assault. The Exercise has improved the cohesion and understanding of the tasks of the fighter pilots and  the tactical team commanders



Chinese Arm Twisting will lead to Instability in Bangladesh

China is arm-twisting Bangladesh to convert soft loans it offered -during President Xi Jinping's visit to Dhaka last year -to commercial credit (incurring higher interest rates) with apparently no headway into projects for which the amount was earmarked.
Bangladesh, however, has resisted the move to change pattern of loans for the projects which are part of grandiose OBOR project connecting China with rest of Asia, Africa and Europe. Higher interest on Chinese loans could push Bangladesh into a debt trap like Sri Lanka .


It has been learnt that the Chinese proposal was made by Li Guangjun, economic and commercial counsellor at the Chinese Embassy in Dhaka, during a recent meeting of the Sino-Bangladesh Joint Economic Council. However, China later showed signs of softening its stance in the face of Opposition from Bangladesh, according to Dhaka-based persons familiar with the issue. Converting soft loans into commercial credit means Bangladesh will have to pay higher interest for the loan. 
Bangladesh signed $25 billion deals with China for nearly two and a half dozen projects during President Xi Jinping's visit to Dhaka in October last year. Chinese officials have claimed that Beijing had not promised that all the projects signed between the two sides during the president's visit would be implemented on the G2G (government to government) basis. The Chinese officials believe that Bangladesh could jointly fund the projects. But Bangladesh government officials argue, when the agreements are signed at the level of leaders, especially in the presence of two heads of government, the loans are treated as soft loans. 
Compared to the Chinese approach India's support of $ 7.5 billion Line of Credit for slew of development projects are offered at a concessional rates. Interest rates of India's Line of Credit to the neighbouring countries are as low as one per cent or even less in some cases.



China’s Brutal suppression of Uyghur Identity is likely to make the region unstable

China’s latest Human Rights violations have been largely ignored by Human Rights activists world over. Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region is reeling under brutal suppression of basic rights of its Muslim population.
Authorities have banned the use of several baby names, including Muhammad, Haji, Islam and Imam. Interestingly, the naming regulations are designed to curtail “religious fervor.” Ruling also targets Uyghur nationalism. Names starting with “Turk” – such as Turkizat and Turkinaz – are also banned.
Banning of baby names follows an earlier ban on “abnormal” beards and full-face and body coverings. New legislation also prevents people from rejecting “radio, television or other public facilities and services,” marrying in accordance with religious rather than legal procedures, and using the halal principle to interfere with the “secular life of others.” Young peoples are prevented attending Namaj in mosques,
The tough new rulings follow the appointment of strongman Chen Quanguo as Xinjiang’s Party Chief in August 2016. Chen, former party secretary of Tibet, earned a reputation for quelling protests against government policies and dramatically reducing the number of self-immolations through the introduction of hardline security measures. However Xinjiag and Tibet can not be dealt with the same hammer.
Since 2011, China has spent more per annum on domestic security than on external defence. 
Severe draconian security policies adopted in Tibet and have created the perception that Uyghurs and Tibetans are second-class citizens in China, and that the Communist Party of China does not value or respect local cultures despite the existence of formal laws that purport to safeguard minority rights.
These fears are further exacerbated by incentives for adopting secular Han Chinese ways.
Another problem on the horizon for Beijing is a potential fallout with Muslim-majority neighbors across Eurasia. China’s policies toward Uyghurs and other members of its 20 million strong Muslim community are likely to arouse the ire of neighbors in the region, at a time when China is seeking to expand trade and cultural ties under its Belt and Road Initiative (OBOR).
Interestingly no Muslim Country has raised its voice against Chinese tyranny. This points towards meek submission to Chinese economic might and their dependence on china.
Brutal suppression of Uyghur identity is likely to result in wide spread resistance in restive Xinjiang region. There are reports that Uyghurs are training with al-Qaeda and Islamic State (ISIS) in preparation for launching future attacks.
Chinese-funded ports, railways, canals, dams and pipelines will become vulnerable to terrorist attacks. Many of the first-phase Belt and Road projects are in politically unstable Muslim majority countries such as Bangladesh and Pakistan. Kazakhstan, which is likely to make the region more unstable much to dislike of China.